Katherine D. Gray, MD, Gaetano Rocco, MD, FRCSEd

Key Points

  • Mediastinoscopy is used to evaluate mediastinal lymph nodes and extra-anatomic mediastinal masses for primary or metastatic disease via direct tissue biopsy
  • Adjuvant techniques such as video mediastinoscopy have improved visualization and trainee education
  • Complications include hemorrhage, injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve, pneumothorax, and uncommonly, inadvertent injury to major vascular structures
  • The sensitivity of mediastinoscopy ranges from 81-93% for detection of mediastinal lymph node involvement in non-small cell lung cancer
  • Techniques such as EBUS-TBNA and EUS-FNA are additional methods of mediastinal staging that complement cervical mediastinoscopy

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Last updated: May 15, 2023