In this article, we review contemporary and emerging robotic platforms with respect to present-day cardiovascular surgery and interventional cardiology. We begin with a brief introduction of surgical robotics and subsequently look into the growing arenas of artificial intelligence (AI), haptic feedback, and telerobotics in robotic surgery. We then assess the current state of cardiovascular robotics and describe emerging cardiovascular robotic platforms, including those of traditional endoscopic and catheter-based interventions as well as rising innovations in millirobotics and bio-inspired robotics. This review undertakes a broad and encompassing scope in hopes of encouraging readers to seek inspiration and insight from the varied display of robotic technology and ultimately contribute to the advancement of innovatory solutions and techniques in the field of cardiovascular robotics.
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