Cerebral Protection

Deborah Kozik, DO, Christina Jenkins, MD, Erle Austin, MD, Frank Pigula, MD


As children with congenital heart defects have improved survival, there is increased awareness of significant early and late neurologic complications and morbidities. Adverse neurologic outcomes are multifactorial and relate to both fixed and modifiable mechanisms. This chapter will review factors in neurodevelopmental outcomes, methods of neuromonitoring, and techniques for neuroprotection.

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Last updated: June 16, 2021