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Mitral Valve Repair for Congestive Heart Failure

Alexander A. Brescia, Tessa M.F. Watt, Steven F. Bolling
Mitral Valve Repair for Congestive Heart Failure is a topic covered in the Adult and Pediatric Cardiac.

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Introduction

Mitral regurgitation (MR) accounts for approximately one-third of acquired left-sided valve pathology in developed countries[1] and is classified broadly as primary or secondary. Primary MR results from pathologic abnormalities including myxomatous degeneration, rheumatic heart disease, radiation injury, endocarditis, and autoimmune disease. Secondary MR, also known as functional MR (FMR), occurs when the valve leaflets are structurally normal, but leaflet coaptation is restricted by abnormal structure and/or function of the left ventricle (LV). Because the underlying pathology in FMR is due to LV dysfunction and resultant congestive heart failure (CHF), the value of surgical correction of FMR is debated and remains controversial. Even mild FMR can be harmful to patients with CHF, as FMR has been shown to be both a sign of advanced CHF and an independent determinant of CHF death. As a result, FMR severity impacts quality of life as well as survival; however, evidence about the prognostic implications of surgically correcting FMR remains scarce. This chapter will focus on assessment, management, and treatment of FMR in the setting of CHF.

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Introduction

Mitral regurgitation (MR) accounts for approximately one-third of acquired left-sided valve pathology in developed countries[1] and is classified broadly as primary or secondary. Primary MR results from pathologic abnormalities including myxomatous degeneration, rheumatic heart disease, radiation injury, endocarditis, and autoimmune disease. Secondary MR, also known as functional MR (FMR), occurs when the valve leaflets are structurally normal, but leaflet coaptation is restricted by abnormal structure and/or function of the left ventricle (LV). Because the underlying pathology in FMR is due to LV dysfunction and resultant congestive heart failure (CHF), the value of surgical correction of FMR is debated and remains controversial. Even mild FMR can be harmful to patients with CHF, as FMR has been shown to be both a sign of advanced CHF and an independent determinant of CHF death. As a result, FMR severity impacts quality of life as well as survival; however, evidence about the prognostic implications of surgically correcting FMR remains scarce. This chapter will focus on assessment, management, and treatment of FMR in the setting of CHF.

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Last updated: July 2, 2020