Attempts to develop a heart-lung machine date back as far as 1813 with an idea proposed by Le Gallois about what would constitute artificial circulation. In the 1880s, Max von Frey and Max Gruber tested the first closed system for oxygenation with return of the blood through arteries in a canine model., Not until 1916, however, with the discovery of heparin by Howell and McLean, could the development of a heart-lung machine further evolve. In 1934, Dr. John Gibbon, considered the father of extracorporeal circulation, began constructing a machine to achieve blood oxygenation. After more than 20 years of animal research and collaboration between Dr. Gibbon and Dr. John Kirklin, the first successful use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was conducted in 1952.
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